CALVIN, MELVIN

CALVIN, MELVIN (1912–1997), U.S. biochemist and Nobel Prize winner. Born in St. Paul, Minnesota, to parents who had emigrated from Russia, he received his B.S. in chemistry in 1931 from the Michigan College of Mining and Technology   and his Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of Minnesota in 1935. He spent 1935–37 as a fellow of the Rockefeller Foundation at the University of Manchester in England, where he studied with michael polanyi . Calvin began his academic career at the University of California at Berkeley in 1937, becoming director of the bio-organic division of the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory in 1946, professor of chemistry in 1947, and in 1960, director of the biodynamics laboratory. Calvin began his work on photosynthesis in the mid-1940s. He used carbon-14 isotope as a radioactive tracer to study photosynthesis – the process whereby living plants convert atmospheric carbon dioxide into sugars under the influence of sunlight and chlorophyll. For his elucidation of reactions in this vital process, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1961. His research also included work in radiation chemistry, the biochemistry of learning, processes leading to the origin of life, and using plant oils as a petroleum substitute. He worked with the Manhattan Project (for atomic fission) in 1944–45 and was on the U.S. delegation to the 1955 Geneva Conference on the peaceful uses of the President's Science Advisory Committee. He was the recipient of many awards and a member of numerous learned societies. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Royal Society of London, and many others. His writings include Isotopic Carbon; Techniques in its Measurement and Chemical Manipulation (1949) and Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis (in collaboration with James Bassham, 1957). (Samuel Aaron Miller / Ruth Rossing (2nd ed.)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • Calvin,Melvin — Calvin, Melvin. 1911 1997. American chemist. He won a 1961 Nobel Prize for discovering the series of chemical reactions in photosynthesis. * * * …   Universalium

  • Calvin, Melvin — born April 8, 1911, St. Paul, Minn., U.S. died Jan. 8, 1997, Berkeley, Calif. U.S. biochemist. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota. He developed a system of using the radioactive isotope carbon 14 as a tracer element in his… …   Universalium

  • Calvin , Melvin — (1911–1997) American chemist and biochemist Born in St. Paul, Minnesota, Calvin studied chemistry at the Michigan College of Mining and Technology and gained his BS degree in 1931. After obtaining his PhD from the University of Minnesota in 1935… …   Scientists

  • Calvin, Melvin — (b. 1912)    US biochemist and Nobel laureate, 1961. Calvin worked at the University of California on the chemical details of the process of photosynthesis, whereby green plants utilize carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and react with chlorophyl …   Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament

  • Calvin, Melvin — (b. 1912)    American biochemist. He worked at the University of California on the chemical details of photosynthesis. He used the Carbon 14 isotope as a research tool. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1961 …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • Calvin, Melvin — ► (1911 97) Químico estadounidense. Fue premio Nobel de Química en 1961 por sus investigaciones sobre la fotosíntesis. * * * (8 abr. 1911, St. Paul, Minn., EE.UU.–8 ene. 1997, Berkeley, Cal.). Bioquímico estadounidense. Obtuvo su Ph.D. en la… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Melvin Calvin — Born April 8, 1911 St. Paul, Minnesota, USA …   Wikipedia

  • Calvin — Calvin, Melvin * * * (as used in expressions) Bridges, Calvin Blackman Calvin, Melvin Coolidge, (John) Calvin Klein, Calvin (Richard) Ripken, Cal(vin Edwin), Jr …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • CALVIN (M.) — CALVIN MELVIN (1911 1997) Biochimiste américain dont les travaux ont renouvelé les connaissances relatives à la photosynthèse. Fils d’émigrés russes, Melvin Calvin obtient son diplôme de chimie en 1931 au Michigan College of Mining and Technology …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Calvin-Benson-Zyklus — Der Calvin Zyklus ist eine zyklische Folge von chemischen Umsetzungen, durch die Kohlenstoffdioxid (CO2) zu Glucose und Wasser reduziert wird. Er dient den meisten photoautotrophen und chemoautotrophen Lebewesen zur Assimilation von Kohlenstoff… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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